## Posts Tagged ‘mathematics’

### Markov chains

June 5, 2009

The approach taken in the Haskell’s probability library makes it especially convenient for modeling Markov chains.
Suppose  $\{X_n\}_{n \in \mathbb{N}}$ is a Markov chain on a state space $S$. Distribution of the process $\{X_n\}_{n \in \mathbb{N}}$ is determined by the distribution of $X_0$ and the numbers $Pr(X_{n+1}=y | X_n = x)$, $x,y \in S, n \in \mathbb{N}$, called transition probabilities. For simplicity let’s consider only time-homogeneous Markov chains where these numbers don’t depend on $n$ and let’s assume that the initial distribution is a point mass, i.e. $X_0 = x_0$ for some $x_0\in S$. Then we can define a function $f: S \rightarrow Dist(S)$, where for each $x \in S$ the value $f(x)$ is a distribution on $S$ defined by $(f(x))(y) = Pr(X_{n+1}=y | X_n = x), x,y \in S, n \in \mathbb{N}$. Here $Dist(S)$ denotes the set of finitely supported nonnegative functions on $S$ that sum up to 1. Conceptually, $f(x)$ is the the distribution of the next value of the chain given the current value is $x$. This is exactly the kind of distribution-valued function that is the right hand side operand of the $\leadsto$ operation from the previous post, which corresponds to the Haskell’s  >>=  operation in the probability monad. (more…)

### Hello world!

September 22, 2007

This blog will be devoted to formalized mathematics.

Formalized mathematics is the craft of writing mathematical proofs in a formal proof language so that they can be verified by a machine.